A Bumpy Fall Semester

Debates rage over masks and vaccines.

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This is the Education Briefing, a weekly update on the most important news in American education. Sign up here to get this newsletter in your inbox.

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A temperature check in Los Angeles this month.Credit…Allison Zaucha for The New York Times

Welcome back!

We had hoped that this new school year would be a fresh start — kids with new, shiny backpacks, teachers ready to tackle a new fall semester and Covid on the retreat.

That hasn’t been the case. As classrooms open, there are new anxieties over the Delta variant, masking and vaccines. And other political issues have divided schools across the country.

A third school year of pandemic education seems to be upon us.

A bumpy, partisan fall semester

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In Broward County, Fla., teachers argued with antimask protesters outside a school board meeting.Credit…Amy Beth Bennett/South Florida Sun-Sentinel, via Associated Press

In June, when we last sent this newsletter, it seemed that the United States was emerging from the worst of the pandemic.

Summer, we hoped, would be quiet.

But the past two months have brought anger and controversy, my colleagues Sarah Mervosh and Giulia Heyward report, as parents, educators and activists packed school board meetings to debate and often protest policies that are also dividing the country.

Some shout down — or demand — mask mandates. Others rail against policies about transgender students. Districts are clashing over how to teach students about racism, often mired in a national debate over critical race theory.

“The water pressure is higher than it has ever been, and there are more leaks than I have fingers,” said Kevin Boyles, a school board official in Minnesota.

Public schools have long stood at the center of civil strife, from the debate over teaching evolution in the 1920s to the push for school desegregation in the 1950s.

Today, the two biggest divides in schools challenge fundamental narratives of what it means to be an American. The debate over mask mandates puts two values into conflict: collective responsibility and personal liberty. And an examination of the country’s history of racism challenges cherished ideas about America’s founding.

At least 28 states, largely Republican-controlled, have moved to restrict education about race and history. Fifteen states, mostly run by Democrats, have moved to expand racial education, according to Chalkbeat.

Leslie Finger, an assistant professor at the University of North Texas who studies the politics of education, described a shift in focus from test scores to the role of schools in democracy.

“Some of the battles are about, ‘What should our future citizens think?'” she said.

The partisan disputes are forcing teachers and administrators to siphon their attention from other urgent issues.

Academically, many students are starting the fall semester with significant deficits in reading and math.

Socially, many children have spent little time in a classroom. More than one million did not attend school, either in person or online. Most were in the younger grades, with the steepest drop in kindergarten.

And emotionally, many children struggled from new or worsening mental health challenges. Health providers are continuing to see a surge in teenagers visiting the emergency room for mental problems, but the number of children in crisis under the age of 13 is also on the rise.

The state of the virus

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Students and teachers wore school-required masks in San Antonio, Texas.Credit…Matthew Busch for The New York Times

The Delta-driven surge has shifted policies, as my colleagues Dana Goldstein and Tariro Mzezewa reported.

Here’s a look at how states and districts across the country are handling the two main issues: masks and vaccines.

Understand Vaccine and Mask Mandates in the U.S.

Vaccine rules. On Aug. 23, the Food and Drug Administration granted full approval to Pfizer-BioNTech’s coronavirus vaccine for people 16 and up, paving the way for an increase in mandates in both the public and private sectors. Private companies have been increasingly mandating vaccines for employees. Such mandates are legally allowed and have been upheld in court challenges.Mask rules. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in July recommended that all Americans, regardless of vaccination status, wear masks in indoor public places within areas experiencing outbreaks, a reversal of the guidance it offered in May. See where the C.D.C. guidance would apply, and where states have instituted their own mask policies. The battle over masks has become contentious in some states, with some local leaders defying state bans.College and universities. More than 400 colleges and universities are requiring students to be vaccinated against Covid-19. Almost all are in states that voted for President Biden.Schools. Both California and New York City have introduced vaccine mandates for education staff. A survey released in August found that many American parents of school-age children are opposed to mandated vaccines for students, but were more supportive of mask mandates for students, teachers and staff members who do not have their shots. Hospitals and medical centers. Many hospitals and major health systems are requiring employees to get a Covid-19 vaccine, citing rising caseloads fueled by the Delta variant and stubbornly low vaccination rates in their communities, even within their work force.New York City. Proof of vaccination is required of workers and customers for indoor dining, gyms, performances and other indoor situations, although enforcement does not begin until Sept. 13. Teachers and other education workers in the city’s vast school system will need to have at least one vaccine dose by Sept. 27, without the option of weekly testing. City hospital workers must also get a vaccine or be subjected to weekly testing. Similar rules are in place for New York State employees.At the federal level. The Pentagon announced that it would seek to make coronavirus vaccinations mandatory for the country’s 1.3 million active-duty troops “no later” than the middle of September. President Biden announced that all civilian federal employees would have to be vaccinated against the coronavirus or submit to regular testing, social distancing, mask requirements and restrictions on most travel.

Masks

At least 14 states have required masks in schools, according to the National Academy for State Health Policy. All have Democratic governors.

And at least nine states, many of which have Republican governors, have banned or nullified mask mandates in schools. President Biden is trying to intervene. And faculty members at public universities in some of those states are pushing for broader safety measures.

In Texas, Gov. Greg Abbott is locked in a bitter dispute with local school districts that are openly defying his order. Now, parents of young children with disabilities are suing him, arguing that the ban prevents their children from being able to attend school safely.

In Florida, Gov. Ron DeSantis has threatened to withhold funding from schools that demand masks. The states’ largest districts defied his order and voted to require them anyway.

A recent survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 63 percent of parents wanted masks in schools for people who were unvaccinated.

Vaccines

Oregon, California, Washington State, Hawaii and New Jersey will require vaccines for teachers, though the rules vary. All have Democratic governors. The staff in the three largest districts in the country — New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago — will also need to get the shot, although those specifics vary, too.

But, as with masks, at least 15 Republican-led states have banned vaccine mandates, according to N.A.S.H.P., although the F.D.A.’s full approval of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine could render some of that legislation moot.

For students, it’s a different story. Although all people in the U.S. who are 12 and older can get vaccinated, many eligible children have yet to receive a single dose. And even though schools are hosting vaccination clinics, persuading some parents isn’t easy. One small district, Culver City, Calif., has insisted on vaccines for older students.

And because the vaccines are not available to children under 12, universal coverage in many schools remains a long way away.

Tips for a strong semester

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Credit…Kezia Gabriella

Our colleagues on the Well desk are full of advice to help kids transition back into school.

If you’re a parent, here are four ways to calm back your own back-to-school fears.

Try these suggestions as your children return to in-person classes.

Help them regulate their emotions as they brace for the semester ahead.

We offer a few good primers on the science behind the coronavirus and children.

For an explanation of how Covid-19 affects kids, listen to my colleague Emily Anthes on The Daily or read her piece on ways the Delta variant has changed the game.

Tara Parker-Pope explored the best research on keeping schoolchildren safe.

And here’s a guide for hard vaccine conversations.

Thanks for reading today’s briefing. As always, we’re at educationbriefing@nytimes.com for any questions, suggestions or concerns. We’re now back to our normal publishing schedule, so look for the Education Briefing again next Wednesday. See you then!

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